Prophets at times very explicitly predicted, or said in advance, future events.
However, their larger role was to observe patterns based on the results of living in or out alignment with God's spiritual principles and laws.
Prophets were considered false or not based on the truth of what they said. How they discerned true from false is an interesting question. How DO you know if someone is telling the truth?
This chart is incomplete in a way, because Joseph had two sons while in Egypt prior to the family arriving, Manasseh and Ephraim, who were adopted into the larger family as sons of Jacob and are often included in the twelve tribes, making more than 12 tribes obviously so that's confusing!
PARDES - 4 Levels of Scriptural Interpretation: A Reflection by Dr. Maurice Mizrahi
Maps of the Holy Land at the Time of Jesus